Thanks to mobile technology, we can now find anything we want, anytime, anywhere. In fact, Google has reported that “near me” searches—queries that use mapping technology to help us quickly locate our closest post offices, restaurants, shops and more—are 34 times more popular than they were in 2011. A review of the billions of these searches revealed an interesting finding with particular implications for HR: More people are searching for “jobs near me.”Today, even finding a job must be a simple search-and-click away.This poses a tremendous opportunity for HR to connect with talent. Innovations in recruiting through social media platforms have also made it easier to find and hire great people. Most important, I believe that, as HR fully embraces these and other technological tools at our disposal, we will free ourselves up to focus on the strategy of our teams and organizations.Fortunately, HR technology is advancing us in this direction. Read my take on how technology is changing the HR profession here. SHRM CEO, Hank Jackson
The topic of artificial intelligence (AI) is of great interest worldwide. As all industries undergo a digital transformation, they are finding that the ability to use data is both a competitive advantage and strategic imperative. Healthcare is certainly no exception. In this first part of a two-part blog series, I will discuss some of the technologies that make up artificial intelligence, and in the second post present five use cases for AI technology in healthcare.The StageWithin healthcare, as in many industries today, we are seeing a massive digital transformation taking place. A key driver for this is a need to manage costs and improve access against a backdrop of an aging population with increasing prevalence of chronic disease.Digital solutions like telemedicine, wearables, and remote sensors are opening the door to innovation around patient engagement and preventative care.And, we’re racing towards a world of precision medicine where genomics and other ‘omics become standard aspects of routine medical care.These transformations are leading to the creation of massive new data sets, which creates an opportunity for the use of artificial intelligence.The DefinitionBefore we go further, let me establish a working definition for artificial intelligence. At Intel, we have developed a taxonomy for artificial intelligence that includes both machine learning and reasoning technologies that enable machines to more closely mimic human capabilities like sensing, reasoning, and acting.Within the area of machine learning, there are two common approaches. The first is classic machine learning that uses statistical techniques like decision trees, random forests, and support vector machines. The second is deep learning, which uses neural networks. A common use for machine learning is classification, which is a common element in predictive models.Adjacent to machine learning are reasoning systems, both memory, and logic based, which are able to identify patterns across data sets using various techniques and build prescriptive solutions.These technologies are not mutually exclusive. They each have strengths and weaknesses. Think of them as various tools to solve specific problems. Increasingly we see solutions being developed that involve several of these technologies to solve specific aspects of a broader business need.The critical precursor for any of these technologies is data. This is why digital transformation in healthcare is so important. Adoption of digital technologies is creating massive new data sets, which presents an opportunity for AI.Moving ForwardA common question that is posed to me is, “how does an organization get started with AI?”To answer this question, it’s important to put AI in context with other analytics techniques.AI is an evolution from traditional analytics. Key capabilities like data governance and training on data-driven decision making set the stage for being able to deploy AI solutions. Critical to this evolution is a top-down commitment from management to use data in order to drive business and clinical processes.In the analytics maturity model shown above, you can see that artificial intelligence starts to come into play when organizations transition from using data to analyze what happened in the past, to using data to predict what will happen in the future. Often this transition occurs through the use of classic machine learning to build predictive models from structured data. Naturally, as organizations get more comfortable with this approach, they will look to utilize new, unstructured data sources that open the door for deep learning.The next step after building predictive models is prescriptive models using cognitive systems that combine the prediction with a business process to recommend a course or courses of action.In my next post, I’ll dive into use cases for AI in healthcare. In the meantime, what questions about AI in healthcare do you have? Send them my way on Twitter at @andybartleyOpens in a new window or @IntelHealthOpens in a new window.
No buts about it, the butthole is one of the finest innovations in the past 540 million years of animal evolution. The first animals that arose seem to have literally had potty mouths: Their modern-day descendants, such as sea sponges, sea anemones, and jellyfish, all lack an anus and must eat and excrete through the same hole. Once an independent exit evolved, however, animals diversified into the majority of species alive today, ranging from earthworms to humans.One apparent advantage of a second hole is that animals can eat while digesting a meal, whereas creatures with one hole must finish and defecate before eating again. Other possible benefits, say evolutionary biologists, include not polluting an animal’s dining area and allowing an animal to evolve a longer body because it does not have to pump waste back up toward the head.However, several unprecedented videos of gelatinous sea creatures called comb jellies, or ctenophores, now threaten to upend the standard view of the evolution of the so-called through-gut. On 15 March, at the Ctenopolooza meeting in St. Augustine, Florida, evolutionary biologist William Browne of the University of Miami in Florida debuted films of comb jellies pooping—and it wasn’t through their mouths.Sign up for our daily newsletterGet more great content like this delivered right to you!Country *AfghanistanAland IslandsAlbaniaAlgeriaAndorraAngolaAnguillaAntarcticaAntigua and BarbudaArgentinaArmeniaArubaAustraliaAustriaAzerbaijanBahamasBahrainBangladeshBarbadosBelarusBelgiumBelizeBeninBermudaBhutanBolivia, Plurinational State ofBonaire, Sint Eustatius and SabaBosnia and HerzegovinaBotswanaBouvet IslandBrazilBritish Indian Ocean TerritoryBrunei DarussalamBulgariaBurkina FasoBurundiCambodiaCameroonCanadaCape VerdeCayman IslandsCentral African RepublicChadChileChinaChristmas IslandCocos (Keeling) IslandsColombiaComorosCongoCongo, The Democratic Republic of theCook IslandsCosta RicaCote D’IvoireCroatiaCubaCuraçaoCyprusCzech RepublicDenmarkDjiboutiDominicaDominican RepublicEcuadorEgyptEl SalvadorEquatorial GuineaEritreaEstoniaEthiopiaFalkland Islands (Malvinas)Faroe IslandsFijiFinlandFranceFrench GuianaFrench PolynesiaFrench Southern TerritoriesGabonGambiaGeorgiaGermanyGhanaGibraltarGreeceGreenlandGrenadaGuadeloupeGuatemalaGuernseyGuineaGuinea-BissauGuyanaHaitiHeard Island and Mcdonald IslandsHoly See (Vatican City State)HondurasHong KongHungaryIcelandIndiaIndonesiaIran, Islamic Republic ofIraqIrelandIsle of ManIsraelItalyJamaicaJapanJerseyJordanKazakhstanKenyaKiribatiKorea, Democratic People’s Republic ofKorea, Republic ofKuwaitKyrgyzstanLao People’s Democratic RepublicLatviaLebanonLesothoLiberiaLibyan Arab JamahiriyaLiechtensteinLithuaniaLuxembourgMacaoMacedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic ofMadagascarMalawiMalaysiaMaldivesMaliMaltaMartiniqueMauritaniaMauritiusMayotteMexicoMoldova, Republic ofMonacoMongoliaMontenegroMontserratMoroccoMozambiqueMyanmarNamibiaNauruNepalNetherlandsNew CaledoniaNew ZealandNicaraguaNigerNigeriaNiueNorfolk IslandNorwayOmanPakistanPalestinianPanamaPapua New GuineaParaguayPeruPhilippinesPitcairnPolandPortugalQatarReunionRomaniaRussian FederationRWANDASaint Barthélemy Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da CunhaSaint Kitts and NevisSaint LuciaSaint Martin (French part)Saint Pierre and MiquelonSaint Vincent and the GrenadinesSamoaSan MarinoSao Tome and PrincipeSaudi ArabiaSenegalSerbiaSeychellesSierra LeoneSingaporeSint Maarten (Dutch part)SlovakiaSloveniaSolomon IslandsSomaliaSouth AfricaSouth Georgia and the South Sandwich IslandsSouth SudanSpainSri LankaSudanSurinameSvalbard and Jan MayenSwazilandSwedenSwitzerlandSyrian Arab RepublicTaiwanTajikistanTanzania, United Republic ofThailandTimor-LesteTogoTokelauTongaTrinidad and TobagoTunisiaTurkeyTurkmenistanTurks and Caicos IslandsTuvaluUgandaUkraineUnited Arab EmiratesUnited KingdomUnited StatesUruguayUzbekistanVanuatuVenezuela, Bolivarian Republic ofVietnamVirgin Islands, BritishWallis and FutunaWestern SaharaYemenZambiaZimbabweI also wish to receive emails from AAAS/Science and Science advertisers, including information on products, services and special offers which may include but are not limited to news, careers information & upcoming events.Required fields are included by an asterisk(*)Browne’s videos elicited gasps from the audience because comb jellies, whose lineage evolved long before other animals with through-guts, had been thought to eat and excrete through a single hole leading to a saclike gut. In 1880, the German zoologist Carl Chun suggested a pair of tiny pores opposite the comb jelly mouth might secrete some substance, but he also confirmed that the animals defecate through their mouths. In 1997, biologists again observed indigestible matter exiting the comb jelly mouth—not the mysterious pores.Browne, however, used a sophisticated video setup to continuously monitor two species that he keeps in captivity, Mnemiopsis leidyi and Pleurobrachia bachei. The movies he played at Ctenopolooza capture the creatures as they ingest tiny crustaceans and zebrafish genetically engineered to glow red with fluorescent protein. Because comb jellies are translucent, the prey can be seen as it circulates through a network of canals lacing the jellies’ bodies. Fast-forward, and 2 to 3 hours later, indigestible particles exit through the pores on the rear end. Browne also presented a close-up image of the pores, highlighting a ring of muscles surrounding each one. “This is a sphincterlike hole,” he told the audience.“Looks like I’ve been wrong for 30 years,” said George Matsumoto, a marine bio logist at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in Moss Landing, California, after he saw Browne’s talk. “If people don’t see this video, they won’t believe it,” he added. Matsumoto said he, as well as the bio logists before him, likely missed the bowel movements because they did not observe their animals long enough after a meal. Jellies seen to expel waste from their mouths might have been, in effect, vomiting because they were fed too much, or the wrong thing. According to recent DNA analyses, comb jellies evolved earlier than other animals considered to have one hole, including sea anemones, jellyfish, and possibly sea sponges. (Some studies suggest sponges arose first.) Consequently, Browne’s as-yet unpublished findings disrupt the stepwise progression of digestive anatomy from one to two holes early in animal evolution.One possibility is that the comb jellies evolved through-guts and anuslike pores on their own, independent of all other animals, over hundreds of millions of years. Alternatively, a through-gut and exit hole may have evolved once in an ancient animal ancestor, and subsequently became lost in anemones, jellyfish, and sponges. Perhaps if you’re an anemone or a sponge stuck to a rock, suggests Matsumoto, it’s better to push waste back into the current rather than below.Browne is currently exploring the latter theory by seeing whether comb jellies activate the same genes when developing their pores that other animals do when growing an anus. If he finds that the genes are different, the evolution of our most unspeakable body part will no longer be considered the singular event zoologists long supposed. “We have all these traditional notions of a ladderlike view of evolution, and it keeps getting shaken,” says Kevin Kocot, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa.