November 2020

The Croatian Rural Tourism Association is looking for concrete and quick solutions to save the Croatian countryside

first_imgThe Croatian Rural Tourism Association has asked the Government of the Republic of Croatia, competent ministries and parliamentary committees to remove restrictions that prevent efficient marketing of agricultural products through tourism in rural areas, in order to stop further deterioration and depopulation of the Croatian countryside.Thus, the Ministry of Tourism was asked to urgently adopt the Action Plan for Rural Tourism, to regulate the legislative framework that accompanies rural tourism and to start promoting this type of tourism in domestic and foreign markets; from the Ministry of Finance, reduction of excise duties on the production of brandy and liqueur for producers who sell exclusively at their own doorstep; from the Ministry of Labor and Pension System, the introduction of value coupons that would enable the engagement of workers for the occasional provision of catering and tourist services in rural areas; and from the Ministry of Agriculture better cooperation with the Ministry of Tourism in order to remove restrictions, and the most efficient placement of agricultural products through tourism. “Agriculture and tourism are marked as sectors with the greatest growth potential in the program of the Government of the Republic of Croatia, and we hope that the Government and other relevant institutions will take effective measures to achieve one of the basic goals of the Government by 2020 – stopping emigration, especially from rural areas. Given the alarming situation in the Croatian countryside, we are looking for quick and coordinated action by all institutions on this issue”Said Jasmina Rakić Horvat, president of the Association.The Croatian Rural Tourism Association brings together family farms and agricultural trades registered for the provision of catering and tourist services from all over Croatia. The main goal of the association is the sustainable development of the Croatian countryside by connecting agriculture and tourism, and creating stimulating conditions for the development of rural tourism by improving the legislative framework and better promotion of this type of tourism in domestic and foreign markets. “We who deal with tourism and agriculture face a number of restrictions and legal obstacles on a daily basis to deal effectively with this type of tourism, which has great potential because the season lasts all year round. Instead of restrictions, we are looking for understanding and incentives so that this type of tourism is adequately recognized as the engine of Croatian rural development”Emphasized Janko Kezele, vice president of the Association. The Croatian Rural Tourism Association offers a partnership to all institutions in solving these problems and expects to hold a series of specific meetings with relevant institutions before the adoption of the 2017 budget.last_img read more

New tourist guide of the city of Požega presented

first_imgAfter the new Tourist Guide of the City of Požega was presented to the public in March 2015, then the first after 20 years, its second edition was presented today. On about a hundred pages, with numerous photos and tourist contents, this tourist guide will certainly contribute to the promotion of Požega in Croatia and beyond.”This edition of the Tourist Guide, to which new locations have been added, is a kind of platform for our entrepreneurs, all those who work on tourist offers, new tourist potentials and products to make it easier to promote and sell them. It is a good story for both travel agencies and restaurants, hoteliers and anyone involved in tourism. The guide contains various cultural sights of the city, the potential of the city and its surroundings and a list of all events in this area with important information for visitors. pointed out the director of the Tourist Board of the City of Požega Silvija Podoljak.The guide was printed in 1.200 copies by Zoa doo Požega, and was presented by the author and editor-in-chief Dalibor Nedela. ” After two years, we issued a reprint of the Tourist Guide. Only those who worked on the project witnessed major changes compared to the previous situation, and how many new things there are in the city can be noticed by people who work in photography. In the new guide, the photos were taken from almost the same positions as in the previous editions, but now the views of the city are completely different. What we should really be proud of is the fact that very few cities the size of Požega within the continental part of Croatia have such an edition ” said Sunday.last_img read more

Scientists use brain stimulation to boost creativity, set stage to treat depression

first_imgShare on Facebook Share A UNC School of Medicine study has provided the first direct evidence that a low dose of electric current can enhance a specific brain pattern to boost creativity by an average of 7.4 percent in healthy adults, according to a common, well-validated test of creativity.This research, published in the journal Cortex, showed that using a 10-Hertz current run through electrodes attached to the scalp enhanced the brain’s natural alpha wave oscillations – prominent rhythmic patterns that can be seen on an electroencephalogram, or EEG.“This study is a proof-of-concept,” said senior author Flavio Frohlich, PhD, assistant professor of psychiatry, cell biology and physiology, biomedical engineering, and neurology. “We’ve provided the first evidence that specifically enhancing alpha oscillations is a causal trigger of a specific and complex behavior – in this case, creativity. But our goal is to use this approach to help people with neurological and psychiatric illnesses. For instance, there is strong evidence that people with depression have impaired alpha oscillations. If we could enhance these brain activity patterns, then we could potentially help many people.” Email LinkedIncenter_img Share on Twitter Pinterest Frohlich, who is also a member of the UNC Neuroscience Center, is now in collaboration with David Rubinow, MD, chair of the department of psychiatry, to use this particular kind of brain stimulation in two clinical trials for people with major depressive disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder, or PMDD – a severe form of premenstrual syndrome. Participant enrollment is now underway for both trials.“The fact that we’ve managed to enhance creativity in a frequency-specific way – in a carefully-done double-blinded placebo-controlled study – doesn’t mean that we can definitely treat people with depression,” Frohlich cautioned. “But if people with depression are stuck in a thought pattern and fail to appropriately engage with reality, then we think it’s possible that enhancing alpha oscillations could be a meaningful, noninvasive, and inexpensive treatment paradigm for them – similar to how it enhanced creativity in healthy participants”Brain RhythmsAt the center of Frohlich’s research are neural oscillations – the naturally occurring rhythmic electrical patterns that neurons generate and repeat throughout the brain. Alpha oscillations occur within the frequency range of 8 and 12 Hertz 9 (or cycles per second). They were discovered in 1929 by Hans Berger, who invented EEG. Alpha oscillations occur most prominently when we close our eyes and shut out sensory stimuli – things we see, feel, taste, smell, and hear.“For a long time, people thought alpha waves represented the brain idling,” Frohlich said. “But over the past 20 years we’ve developed much better insight. Our brains are not wasting energy, creating these patterns for nothing. When the brain is decoupled from the environment, it still does important things.”When alpha oscillations are prominent, your sensory inputs might be offline as you daydream, meditate, or conjure ideas. But when something happens that requires action, your brain immediately redirects attention to what’s going on around you. You come fully online, and the alpha oscillations disappear. Other oscillations at higher frequencies, such as gamma oscillations, take over.Knowing this, other researchers began associating alpha oscillations with creativity. Frohlich set out to find evidence. His idea was simple. If he could enhance the rhythmic patterns of alpha oscillations to improve creativity, then it might be possible to enhance alpha oscillations to help people with depression and other conditions of the central nervous system that seem to involve the same brain patterns.For three years, his lab has used computer simulations and other experiments to hone a technique to improve alpha oscillation.For the Cortex study, Frohlich’s team enrolled 20 healthy adults. Researchers placed electrodes on each side of each participant’s frontal scalp and a third electrode toward the back of the scalp. This way, the 10-Hertz alpha oscillation stimulation for each side of the cortex would be in unison. This is a key difference in Frohlich’s method as compared to other brain stimulation techniques.Each participant underwent two sessions. During one session, researchers used a 10-Hertz sham stimulation for just five minutes. Participants felt a little tingle at the start of the five minutes. For the next 25 minutes, each participant continued to take the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking, a comprehensive and commonly used test of creativity. In one task, each participant was shown a small fraction of an illustration – sometimes just a bent line on a piece of paper. Participants used the line to complete an illustration, and they wrote a title when they finished.In the other session each participant underwent the same protocol, except they were stimulated at 10 Hertz for the entire 30 minutes while doing the Torrance test. The tingling sensation only occurred at the start of the stimulation, ensuring that each participant did not know which session was the control session.Because rating creativity or scoring a test can involve subjectivity, Frohlich sent each participant’s work to the company that created the test. “We didn’t even tell the company what we were doing,” Frohlich said. “We just asked them to score the tests.”Then Frohlich’s team compared each participant’s creativity score for each session. He found that during the 30-minute stimulation sessions, participants scored an average 7.4 percentage points higher than they did during the control sessions.“That’s a pretty big difference when it comes to creativity,” Frohlich said. “Several participants showed incredible improvements in creativity. It was a very clear effect.”Pattern SpecificBut there was a question. What if the electrical stimulation merely caused a general electric effect on the brain, independent of the alpha oscillation? To find out, Frohlich’s team conducted the same experiments but used 40 Hertz of electrical current, which falls in the gamma frequency band typically associated with sensory processing – when the brain is computing what we see or touch or hear.“Using 40 Hertz, we saw no effect on creativity,” Frohlich said. “The effect we saw was specific to the 10-hertz alpha oscillations. There’s no statistical trickery. You just have to look at each participant’s test to see these effects.”Frohlich said he understood some people might want to capitalize on this sort of study to boost creativity in their everyday lives, but he cautioned against it. “We don’t know if there are long-term safety concerns,” he said. “We did a well-controlled, one-time study and found an acute effect.”“Also, I have strong ethical concerns about cognitive enhancement for healthy adults, just as sports fans might have concerns about athletic enhancement through the use of performance-enhancing drugs.”Instead, Frohlich is focused on treating people with depression and other mental conditions, such as schizophrenia, for which cognitive deficits during everyday life is a major problem.“There are people that are cognitively impaired and need help, and sometimes there are no medications that help or the drugs have serious side effects,” Frohlich said. “Helping these populations of people is why we do this kind of research.”last_img read more

Researchers solve longtime puzzle about how we learn

first_imgMore than a century ago, Pavlov figured out that dogs fed after hearing a bell eventually began to salivate when they heard the ring. A Johns Hopkins University-led research team has now figured out a key aspect of why.In the current issue of the journal Neuron, neuroscientist Alfredo Kirkwood settles a long-running debate in neurology: Precisely what happens in the brain when we learn? In other words, neurologically speaking, how did Pavlov’s dogs learn to associate a ringing bell with the delayed reward that followed? For decades, scientists have had a working theory, but Kirkwood’s team is now the first to prove it.“If you’re trying to train a dog to sit, the initial neural stimuli, the command, is gone almost instantly — it lasts as long as the word ‘Sit,’” said Kirkwood, a professor with the university’s Zanvyl Krieger Mind/Brain Institute. “Before the reward comes, the dog’s brain has already turned to other things. The mystery was, ‘How does the brain link an action that’s over in a fraction of a second with a reward that doesn’t come until much later?’” LinkedIn Share on Facebook Email The working theory — which Kirkwood’s team has validated — is that invisible “eligibility traces” effectively tag the neural synapses activated by the stimuli so that it can be cemented as true learning with the eventual arrival of a reward.In the case of a dog learning to sit, when the dog gets a treat or a reward, neuromodulators like dopamine flood the dog’s brain with “good feelings.” Though the brain has long since processed the “Sit” command, eligibility traces respond to the neuromodulators, prompting a lasting synaptic change: learning.The team was able to prove the theory by isolating cells in the visual cortex of a mouse. When they stimulated the axon of one cell with an electrical impulse, they sparked a response in another cell. By doing this repeatedly, they mimicked the synaptic response between two cells as they process a stimulus and create an eligibility trace. When the researchers later flooded the cells with neuromodulators, simulating the arrival of a delayed reward, the response between the cells strengthened or weakened, showing the cells had “learned” and were able to do so because of the eligibility trace.“This is the basis of how we learn things through reward,” Kirkwood said, “a fundamental aspect of learning.”In addition to a greater understanding of the mechanics of learning, these findings could enhance teaching methods and lead to treatments for cognitive problems.center_img Pinterest Share Share on Twitterlast_img read more

Adults over 30 not as happy as they used to be — but teens and young adults happier than ever

first_imgShare on Twitter “Our current culture of pervasive technology, attention-seeking, and fleeting relationships is exciting and stimulating for teens and young adults, but may not provide the stability and sense of community that mature adults require,” said Twenge, who is also the author of “Generation Me.”Data showed that 38 percent of adults older than 30 said they were “very happy” in the early 1970s, which shrunk to 32 percent in the 2010s. Twenty-eight percent of adults ages 18 to 29 said they were “very happy” in the early 1970s, versus 30 percent in the 2010s.Over the same time, teens’ happiness increased: 19 percent of 12th graders said they were “very happy” in the late 1970s, versus 23 percent in the 2010s.“American culture has increasingly emphasized high expectations and following your dreams– things that feel good when you’re young,” Twenge said. “However, the average mature adult has realized that their dreams might not be fulfilled, and less happiness is the inevitable result. Mature adults in previous eras might not have expected so much, but expectations are now so high they can’t be met.”That drop in happiness occurred for both men and women, said Twenge. “A previous study in 2008 got quite a bit of attention when it found that women’s happiness had declined relative to men’s. We now find declines in both men’s and women’s happiness, especially after 2010.”The results were published today in Social Psychological and Personality Science. Share LinkedIn Share on Facebookcenter_img Email Are you less happy than your parents were at the same age? It may not be all in your head. Researchers led by San Diego State University professor Jean M. Twenge found adults over age 30 are not as happy as they used to be, but teens and young adults are happier than ever.Researchers — including Ryne A. Sherman of Florida Atlantic University and Sonja Lyubomirsky of University of California, Riverside — analyzed data from four nationally representative samples of 1.3 million Americans ages 13 to 96 taken from 1972 to 2014.They found that after 2010, the age advantage for happiness found in prior research vanished. There is no longer a positive correlation between age and happiness among adults, and adults older than 30 are no longer significantly happier than those ages 18 to 29. Pinterestlast_img read more

Alternative explanations for the evolution of monogamy and sibling cooperation

first_imgShare on Facebook Share The textbook “monogamy hypothesis” argues that monogamy favors the evolution of cooperation by increasing sibling relatedness, since helpers are as related to the full siblings that they care for as they are to their own offspring. So under certain circumstances helping can be as, or even more, successful in getting genes passed on as reproducing. But in an Opinion, published May 3 in Trends in Ecology & Evolution, two experts in social and reproductive behavior say that the proof isn’t all there.In their paper, Professor David Westneat and his graduate student Jacqueline Dillard–both at the University of Kentucky–present three alternative explanations:Monogamy and sibling cooperation co-evolved, so that one trait increased the benefits of the other.Ecological pressures selected for both monogamy and sibling cooperation simultaneously, so that one trait does not depend on the other.The evolution of monogamy created new physiological and behavioral adaptations that may also be useful in sibling cooperation.“This is a case study demonstrating the importance of not boiling organisms down to simple traits,” says Dillard, who studies a socially monogamous group of Bess Beetles. She notes that the classic monogamy hypothesis considers a single link between the high occurrences of sibling cooperation in monogamous species, when a number of factors could be in play. Share on Twitter Pinterestcenter_img Email LinkedIn For example, from beetles to birds to humans, both monogamy and sibling cooperation tend to occur where the value of caring for young is high and the opportunities for mating are low, so environmental changes that increase the benefits of care, such as food scarcity, or reduce likelihood of reproducing, could promote both traits.Physical and social adaptations, such as increases in the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin, that enable monogamy could also pre-adapt species to cooperation. “If you are living with a social partner, evolving to live in that environment requires a lot of tolerance; these sorts of things can come in handy later on when you want to cooperate with another individual,” Dillard says.Dillard is now developing comparative and experimental studies that can measure the relative contributions of these variables. However, Dillard and Westneat believe that a more systems-level approach to studying monogamy and cooperation will be necessary to answer longstanding questions about the evolution of these traits.last_img read more

Study: Narcissists are more likely to buy likes to look popular on Instagram

first_imgShare Narcissistic individuals are more likely to try to enhance their popularity on Instagram with deceptive or manipulative tactics, according to research published in Computers in Human Behavior.The study, which surveyed a total of 463 emerging adults who use Instagram, found that deceptive like-seeking behavior occurred among 12-55% of the sample. Deceptive like-seeking behaviors include dishonest methods of obtaining likes, such as buying likes/followers or changing one’s physical appearance with editing software.Emerging adults who scored higher on a measure of narcissism or reported weaker feelings of peer belonging were more likely to engage in these deceptive like-seeking behaviors. Share on Twitter LinkedIn Pinterestcenter_img Email Share on Facebook PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Tara M. Dumas of Huron University College at Western University. Read her responses below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Dumas: I am a Professor at a liberal arts school in Ontario, Canada (Huron University College) and work closely with undergraduate students. It was during discussions with my students that I had first learned of the great lengths that some young people go to secure likes from other people on Instagram. I learned that a subset of these behaviors involve an element of deception such as buying followers or changing one’s physical appearance in photos using software before uploading them to Instagram. I found this surprising and also interesting from a social comparison and self-validation perspective. I discussed this with my colleague, Dr. Maxwell-Smith at Western University, who is also interested in how online consumption activities are affected by processes related to social comparison, and we both agreed that there appeared to be a great need for more research in this area.What should the average person take away from your study?This study is correlational in nature and thus we cannot assess causality. That being said, it is noteworthy that we found no apparent benefits of engaging in more dishonest forms of like-seeking behavior on Instagram. Instead, deceptive like-seeking was associated with narcissism and weaker feelings of peer belonging, while more normative forms of like-seeking (e.g., using a filter or hashtag) were associated with stronger feelings of peer belonging (i.e., the extent to which people feel connected to and valued by their peers). Further, there was no clear trend with one type of like-seeking behavior being associated with a greater number of likes received more than the other.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?I think it will be important for future research to adopt a longitudinal design, over time. This would allow researchers to examine if different types of like-seeking behavior on Instagram (and other social networking sites) actually serve to alter the number of likes received and to what degree this has an impact on how young people feel about themselves. Further, I think we can conduct more research to gain a better perspective of the types of young adults who are most likely to engage in deceptive and normative like-seeking behaviors and the resulting personal and social consequences/outcomes. For our part, my colleague Dr. Maxwell-Smith and I are currently examining how social dynamics within young people’s friend groups predict their like-seeking behavior on Instagram.The study, “Lying or Longing for Likes? Narcissism, Peer Belonging, Loneliness and Normative versus Deceptive Like-seeking on Instagram in Emerging Adulthood“, was also co-authored by Matthew Maxwell-Smith, Jordan P. Davis, and Paul A. Giulietti.last_img read more

Information avoidance research shows: From health to politics, people select their own reality

first_imgShare Share on Facebook Email “The standard account of information in economics is that people should seek out information that will aid in decision making, should never actively avoid information, and should dispassionately update their views when they encounter new valid information,” said Loewenstein, the Herbert A. Simon University Professor of Economics and Psychology who co-founded the field of behavioral economics.Loewenstein continued, “But people often avoid information that could help them to make better decisions if they think the information might be painful to receive. Bad teachers, for example, could benefit from feedback from students, but are much less likely to pore over teaching ratings than skilled teachers.”Even when people cannot outright ignore information, they often have substantial latitude in how to interpret it. Questionable evidence is often treated as credible when it confirms what someone wants to believe — as is the case of discredited research linking vaccines to autism. And, by the same token, evidence that meets the rigorous demands of science is often discounted if it goes against what people want to believe, as illustrated by widespread dismissal of scientific evidence of climate change.Information avoidance can harm individual wellbeing, as when people miss opportunities to treat serious diseases early on or fail to learn about better financial investments that could prepare them for retirement. It also has large societal implications. The demand for ideologically aligned information drives media bias, which fuels political polarization: When basic facts are no longer part of a shared understanding, the foundation of societal discourse disappears.“An implication of information avoidance is that we do not engage effectively with those who disagree with us,” said Hagmann, a Ph.D. student in the Department of Social and Decision Sciences. “Bombarding people with information that challenges their cherished beliefs – the usual strategy that people employ in attempts at persuasion — is more likely to engender defensive avoidance than receptive processing. If we want to reduce political polarization, we have to find ways not only to expose people to conflicting information, but to increase people’s receptivity to information that challenges what they believe and want to believe.”Despite its evident pitfalls and costs, information avoidance isn’t always a mistake or a reflection of a lazy mind.“People do it for a reason,” said Golman, assistant professor of social and decision sciences. “Those who do not take a genetic test can enjoy their life until their illness can’t be ignored, an inflated sense of our own abilities can help us to pursue big and worthwhile goals, and not looking at our financial investments when markets are down may keep us from selling in a panic.”Understanding when, why, and how people avoid information can help governments and firms alike to reach their audiences effectively without drowning them in unwanted messages. LinkedIncenter_img Pinterest Share on Twitter We live in an unprecedented “age of information.” Dieters have access to nutritional information, people at risk of genetic disease can undergo cutting-edge medical tests and citizens in modern democracies have access to a wide range of news sources covering the entire political spectrum.However, for all the information that is out there, people make use of very little of it. Those on diets, for example, often prefer not to look at the number of calories in a tasty dessert, people at high risk for a disease avoid screening tests that could give them a definite answer, and most consumers of news choose sources that align with rather than challenge their political ideology. Indeed, people at times actively avoid useful information that is available to them.Drawing on research in economics, psychology, and sociology, Carnegie Mellon University’s George Loewenstein, Russell Golman and David Hagmann illustrate how people deliberately avoid information that threatens their happiness and wellbeing. Published in the Journal of Economic Literature, they show that, while a simple failure to obtain information is the most clear-cut case of “information avoidance,” people have a wide range of other information-avoidance strategies at their disposal. They are also remarkably adept at selectively directing their attention to information that affirms what they believe or that reflects favorably upon them, and at forgetting information they wish were not true.last_img read more

Bullies have more sexual partners, according to study of adolescents

first_imgAdolescents who are willing to exploit others for personal gain are more likely to bully and have sex than those who score higher on a measure of honesty and humility. This is according to a study in Springer’s journal Evolutionary Psychological Science which was led by Daniel Provenzano of the University of Windsor in Canada.Researchers believe that bullying might be more than just objectionable behaviour. It might, in fact, have evolved as a way for men to show dominance and strength, and to signal to women that they are good breeding stock, able to protect their offspring and provide for their needs. From an evolutionary perspective, a man’s dominance may make him more attractive to his potential sexual partners, as well as scaring off potential rivals.Provenzano and his colleagues investigated individual personality differences that might make one person more willing and able to use bullying tactics when competing for sexual partners than others. Two sets of participants were recruited: 144 older adolescents (with a mean age of 18.3) and 396 younger adolescents (with a mean age of 14.6). Participants had to fill in questionnaires about their sex life and number of sexual partners, as well as frequency of bullying perpetration. Through another questionnaire, the researchers learnt more about six different aspects of the participants’ personality, such as their willingness to cooperate with others, or to exploit and antagonise others. The latter is measured by looking at how agreeable and emotionally in tune someone is, as well as how honest and humble they are. Those who do not score high in these latter measures tend to display antisocial personality traits and to subsequently be bullies.Provenzano’s team found that younger people who scored lower in “Honesty-Humility” were more likely to use bullying tactics to pursue more sexual partners than others.“Younger adolescents lower in ‘Honesty-Humility’ may therefore strategically manipulate others in a variety of ways to obtain more sexual partners,” says Provenzano. “Our findings indirectly suggest that exploitative adolescents may have more sexual partners if they are able to strategically use exploitative behaviour like bullying to target weaker individuals.”According to Provenzano, adolescents lower in “Honesty-Humility” may also use bullying as an intersexual strategy to display traits such as strength and dominance to attract the opposite sex. They might also use bullying to put their rivals in a bad light, or to threaten rivals into withdrawing from intra-sexual competition in order to gain advantage when it comes to potential sexual partners.“Our results suggest that both research and intervention efforts with older and younger adolescents need to recognize and respond to the relationships between personality, sex and bullying,” explains Provenzano. Share on Facebook Pinterest Sharecenter_img LinkedIn Email Share on Twitterlast_img read more

What people want from relationships influences how they flirt, study finds

first_imgPinterest Share Share on Twitter Share on Facebook LinkedIncenter_img Email “Proteanism is a strategy that certain prey animals appear to use to avoid predators by engaging in totally unpredictable (even to themselves) movements. The inability to predict one’s own behaviors makes it that much harder for predators to coordinate attacks.”“A similar tactic might be effective within human mating, particularly when individuals engage in flirting because a lack of clarity on the part of the person flirting is actually advantageous in two ways. First, it prevents others from being able to determine whether a potential mate is actually being pursued, which could decrease interference while still casting a wide net for mates,” the researchers explained.“Second, it provides protection from social shame in the form of plausible deniability if sexual advances are rebuffed. These benefits should be particularly useful for people pursuing short-term, rather than long-term, mates.”“Upon researching this topic, we soon realized there wasn’t much documentation of human flirting tactics, much less protean ones, outside of lists of nonverbal behaviors such as licking one’s lips or crossing one’s legs toward the person. We conducted our studies to first create such a list and then use it to test our ideas about proteanism and its potential link to mating strategy.”The study, which included nearly 1,300 participants in total, found that most people agreed on what the most typical flirting tactics were. Perilloux and her colleagues also found that individuals more interested in uncommitted sexual relationships were more likely to say they would employ atypical flirting behaviors compared to individuals more interested in long-term relationships. Men were also more likely to endorse using atypical behaviors than women.“Although there is not a set script for communicating romantic interest, most people reported engaging in typical flirting behaviors (e.g., eye contact, playing with their hair, asking for their advice on something) significantly more than atypical flirting behaviors (e.g., offering a foot rub, buying a gift for the person’s mother, reciting Shakespeare),” the researchers told PsyPost.“Second, people are good at recognizing and discerning whether a particular flirting behavior will be successful or unsuccessful in most circumstances. That is, people seemed to know, based on the behaviors we inventoried, whether or not their behavior was going to be considered appealing.” “Third, we showed that short-term maters were more likely to indicate they would perform atypical (our version of ‘protean’) behaviors. Finally, however, we found that an overwhelming majority of participants found the most typical behaviors to be most attractive, even those participants interested in short-term mating! Our results converged on the conclusion that recipients prefer the certainty of being someone’s flirting target, even though people pursuing short-term mating might behave otherwise,” the authors of the study said.The study — like all research — includes some caveats. “One of the biggest caveats is the nature of proteanism itself, which is essentially pure randomness, or having no discernable strategy at all. We do not know enough about potential protean mechanisms in nature or how to truly test for absolute randomness in human flirtation, so we shifted our study to focus on atypical or unexpected flirting behaviors,” the researchers explained.“Proteanism was the inspiration for the study, which provided valuable insight into flirting behaviors, but true protean strategies remain untested. Our results provided a very interesting mismatch between the use and preference for atypical flirting behaviors: it’s surprising that short-term maters indicated a tendency to use atypical behaviors given that no one, including other short-term maters, seemed to like them.” “In other words, one would think that these unexpected strategies must work some of the time or else no one would use them, but we did not document how and with what frequency these atypical flirting tactics are successful,” Perilloux and her colleagues said.“On an even more basic level though, questions remain as to whether individuals actually engage in these unexpected flirting behaviors in their real lives. The vignettes we used incorporated purely hypothetical scenarios, but in a face-to-face interaction when the consequences of a real missed mating opportunity are high, it is unclear if short-term maters will actually employ atypical behaviors.”The study, “Creative Casanovas: Mating Strategy Predicts Using—but Not Preferring—Atypical Flirting Tactics“, was authored by Justin White, Helena Lorenz, Carin Perilloux, and Aliehs Lee. New research from Southwestern University has found that people who are pursuing short-term sexual relationships are more likely to engage in unusual flirting behaviors. But the study also uncovered a surprising mismatch: people who are interested in uncommitted relationships are not any more receptive to atypical flirting.The research, published in the journal Evolutionary Psychological Science, was conducted by Carin Perilloux, Justin White, Aliehs Lee, and Helena Lorenz.“We became interested in this topic after coming across Geoffrey Miller’s application of ‘proteanism’ (or randomness for the sake of randomness),” the authors of the study told PsyPost. last_img read more